Nature Retracts Room-Temperature Superconductor Discovery

Nature Retracts Room-Temperature Superconductor Discovery

Nature, one of the most prestigious journals in scientific publishing, on Tuesday retracted a high-profile paper it had published in March that claimed the discovery of a superconductor that worked at everyday temperatures.

It was the second superconductor paper involving Ranga P. Dias, a professor of mechanical engineering and physics at the University of Rochester in New York State, to be retracted by the journal in just over a year. It joined an unrelated paper retracted by another journal in which Dr. Dias was a key author.

Dr. Dias and his colleagues’ research is the latest in a long list of claims of room-temperature superconductors that have failed to pan out. But the retraction raised uncomfortable questions for Nature about why the journal’s editors publicized the research after they had already scrutinized and retracted an earlier paper from the same group.

A spokesman for Dr. Dias said that the scientist denied allegations of research misconduct. “Professor Dias intends to resubmit the scientific paper to a journal with a more independent editorial process,” the representative said.

First discovered in 1911, superconductors can seem almost magical — they conduct electricity without resistance. However, no known materials are superconductors in everyday conditions. Most require ultracold temperatures, and recent advances toward superconductors that function at higher temperatures require crushing pressures.

A superconductor that works at everyday temperatures and pressures could find use in M.R.I. scanners, novel electronic devices and levitating trains.

Superconductors unexpectedly became a viral topic on social networks over the summer when a different group of scientists, in South Korea, also claimed to have discovered a room-temperature superconductor, named LK-99. Within a couple of weeks, the excitement died away after other scientists were unable to confirm the superconductivity observations and came up with plausible alternative explanations.

Even though it was published in a high-profile journal, Dr. Dias’s claim of a room-temperature superconductor did not set off euphoria like LK-99 did because many scientists in the field already regarded his work with doubt.

In the Nature paper published in March, Dr. Dias and his colleagues reported that they had discovered a material — lutetium hydride with some nitrogen added — that was able to superconduct electricity at temperatures of up to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. It still required pressure of 145,000 pounds per square inch, which is not difficult to apply in a laboratory. The material took on a red hue when squeezed, leading Dr. Dias to nickname it “reddmatter” after a substance in a “Star Trek” movie.

Less than three years earlier, Nature published a paper from Dr. Dias and many of the same scientists. It described a different material that they said was also a superconductor although only at crushing pressures of nearly 40 million pounds per square inch. But other researchers questioned some of the data in the paper. After an investigation, Nature agreed, retracting the paper in September 2022 over the objections of the authors.

In August of this year, the journal Physical Review Letters retracted a 2021 paper by Dr. Dias that described intriguing electrical properties, although not superconductivity, in another chemical compound, manganese sulfide.

James Hamlin, a professor of physics at the University of Florida, told Physical Review Letters’ editors that the curves in one of the paper’s figures describing electrical resistance in manganese sulfide looked similar to graphs in Dr. Dias’s doctoral thesis that described the behavior of a different material.

Outside experts enlisted by the journal agreed that the data looked suspiciously similar, and the paper was retracted. Unlike the earlier Nature retraction, all nine of Dr. Dias’s co-authors agreed to the retraction. Dr. Dias was the lone holdout and maintained that the paper accurately portrayed the research findings.

In May, Dr. Hamlin and Brad J. Ramshaw, a professor of physics at Cornell University, sent editors at Nature their concerns about the lutetium hydride data in the March paper.

After the retraction by Physical Review Letters, most of the authors of the lutetium hydride paper concluded that the research from their paper was flawed too.

In a letter dated Sept. 8, eight of the 11 authors asked for the Nature paper to be retracted.

“Dr. Dias has not acted in good faith in regard to the preparation and submission of the manuscript,” they told the Nature editors.

The writers of the letter included five recent graduate students who worked in Dr. Dias’s lab, as well as Ashkan Salamat, a professor of physics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, who collaborated with Dr. Dias on the two earlier retracted papers. Dr. Dias and Dr. Salamat founded Unearthly Materials, a company that was meant to turn the superconducting discoveries into commercial products.

Dr. Salamat, who was the company’s president and chief executive, is no longer an employee there. He did not respond to a request for comment on the retraction.

In the retraction notice published on Tuesday, Nature said that the eight authors who wrote the letter in September expressed the view that “the published paper does not accurately reflect the provenance of the investigated materials, the experimental measurements undertaken and the data-processing protocols applied.”

The issues, those authors said, “undermine the integrity of the published paper.”

Dr. Dias and two other authors, former students of his, “have not stated whether they agree or disagree with this retraction,” the notice said. A Nature spokeswoman said they did not respond to the proposed retraction.

“This has been a deeply frustrating situation,” Karl Ziemelis, the chief editor for applied and physical sciences at Nature, said in a statement.

Mr. Ziemelis defended the journal’s handling of the paper. “Indeed, as is so often the case, the highly qualified expert reviewers we selected raised a number of questions about the original submission, which were largely resolved in later revisions,” he said. “This is how peer review works.”

He added, “What the peer-review process cannot detect is whether the paper as written accurately reflects the research as it was undertaken.”

For Dr. Ramshaw, the retraction provided validation. “When you are looking into someone else’s work, you always wonder whether you are just seeing things or overinterpreting,” he said.

The disappointments of LK-99 and Dr. Dias’s claims may not deter other scientists from investigating possible superconductors. Two decades ago, a scientist at Bell Labs, J. Hendrik Schön, published a series of striking findings, including novel superconductors. Investigations showed that he had made up most of his data.

That did not stymie later major superconductor discoveries. In 2014, a group led by Mikhail Eremets, of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Germany, showed that hydrogen-containing compounds are superconductors at surprisingly warm temperatures when squeezed under ultrahigh pressures. Those findings are still broadly accepted.

Russell J. Hemley, a professor of physics and chemistry at the University of Illinois Chicago who followed up Dr. Eremets’s work with experiments that found another material that was also a superconductor at ultrahigh pressure conditions, continues to believe Dr. Dias’s lutetium hydride findings. In June, Dr. Hemley and his collaborators reported that they had also measured the apparent vanishing of electrical resistance in a sample that Dr. Dias had provided, and on Tuesday, Dr. Hemley said he remained confident that the findings would be reproduced by other scientists.

After the Physical Review Letters retraction, the University of Rochester confirmed that it had started a “comprehensive investigation” by experts not affiliated with the school. A university spokeswoman said that it had no plans to make the findings of the investigation public.

The University of Rochester has removed YouTube videos it produced in March that featured university officials lauding Dr. Dias’s research as a breakthrough.

A1L

A1O

https://saga.so/b1484ccc-c0a3-4d88-a518-0696a2534bfb

https://saga.so/e94f6d51-69a5-4e38-a088-48eab2d76d72

https://saga.so/cb053413-d946-40fd-8bb7-a1a01765b4a4

https://saga.so/s/6hRavvXV7eY-IcqZKfyE/d7f8f29f-5194-4c99-9749-b6de8bff1220

https://saga.so/c870ad73-5f4e-49a3-99ca-b644368319d0

https://saga.so/bbdadec6-f62a-48cc-8a52-ad82b76a9bd5

https://saga.so/aa6462a0-83b5-419c-97a8-085056c7c192

https://saga.so/d0dbb959-379e-4d2d-a014-63da096af6fa

https://soundcloud.com/japakkothenbeutellkfo-a5-8-76/goodbye-julia-2023

https://soundcloud.com/japakkothenbeutellkfo-a5-8-76/goodbye-julia-2024

https://soundcloud.com/japakkothenbeutellkfo-a5-8-76/goodbye-julia2022-hd-online

https://soundcloud.com/scharbroughdanicadul-v2-832/the-marvels-2023-web-dl-1080p

https://soundcloud.com/scharbroughdanicadul-v2-832/the-marvels-3-2023

https://soundcloud.com/scharbroughdanicadul-v2-832/the-marvels-32023-hd

https://soundcloud.com/five-nights-at-freddys-742195175/five-nights-at-freddys-2023-web-dl-1080p

https://soundcloud.com/five-nights-at-freddys-742195175/five-nights-at-freddys-2023

https://m.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.357056250131785&type=3

https://m.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.357056670131743&type=3

https://m.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.357056970131713&type=3

https://m.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.362448216245160&type=3

https://m.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.362447592911889&type=3

https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1xcHF_H6Jwoy3YqztbDo7jXr1tMda3WFc?usp=sharing

https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1aMnab-rTxZ-FPXY1HeCxawJsV2G_x7Ho?usp=sharing

https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1UMjYea3LhNQN0D_-1w0IxYeO7cTVsEYe?usp=sharing

https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1Qy2ZshHqtZnoFhw3QiifEaHAZ3mac16G?usp=sharing

https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1Dt0d5Y6yX4SyXh6yAfgEXBjMVL3DSc4c?usp=sharing

https://baskadia.com/post/nd3b

https://baskadia.com/post/nd50

https://baskadia.com/post/nd87

https://soundcloud.com/doy-dognex/2023-1080p

https://soundcloud.com/doy-dognex/the-hunger-games-the-ballad-of-songbirds-and-snakes-2023-hd1080p

https://soundcloud.com/doy-dognex/the-hunger-games-the-ballad-of-songbirds-and-snakes-2023

https://lookerstudio.google.com/reporting/2e2351f2-893d-4bdc-bf09-6a160765de32

https://lookerstudio.google.com/reporting/86008639-a1f5-4759-81f4-d999c0f5af03

https://player.soundon.fm/p/7e7fc1e5-2e41-49a9-a740-4df35465ea68

https://player.soundon.fm/p/1eb259f5-810d-4a6f-95c4-a72e2e4642e2

https://player.soundon.fm/p/acb7930b-0da1-42fe-bfe5-e1bc36db5b17

https://player.soundon.fm/p/b0b39953-1551-4e21-84a4-8bfd1dd8f2e8

A1B

孤注一掷-線上看 完整版『2023』~4K線上看| 小鴨影音HD~1080p

【孤注一掷】- 線上看小鴨完整版 高清No More Bets」在线观看和下载HD~1080pL

【孤注一掷】-線上看-2023-完整版-HD~1080p

孤注一掷-線上看【2023】HD – 在線觀看 [HK-No More Bets] 線上看~1080p

看《孤注一掷》-線上看 完整版 – 在线观看[No More Bets]电影高清[2023]~4K

【孤注一掷】-線上看【2023】|HD~1080p 在线观看和下载~4K

粽邪3:鬼門開-線上看-2023-完整版HD~1080p

粽邪3:鬼門開【2023】線上看| 在线观看和下载~4K小鴨影音| HD-1080p

【粽邪3:鬼門開】- 線上看小鴨完整版 高清The Rope Curse 3」在线观看和下载HD~1080p

粽邪3:鬼門開-線上看【2023】HD – 在線觀看 [HK-The Rope Curse 3] 線上看~1080p

看《粽邪3:鬼門開》-線上看 完整版 – 在线观看[The Rope Curse 3]电影高清[2023]~4K

【粽邪3:鬼門開】-線上看【2023】|HD~1080p 在线观看和下载~4K

《私刑教育3》-線上看-2023-完整版HD~1080p

私刑教育3線上看【2023】| 在线观看和下载~4K小鴨影音| HD-1080p

《私刑教育3》線上看完整版HD~1080p – 在线观看【The Equalizer 3 2023】电影高清~4K

【私刑教育3】- 線上看小鴨完整版 高清The Equalizer 3」在线观看和下载HD~1080p

【伸冤人3】-線上看【2023】|HD~1080p 在线观看和下载~4K

伸冤人3-線上看 (2023) 完整版The Equalizer 3 完整版[4K/HD~1080p] 在線免費

伸冤人3-線上看 「完整版」[2023]高清电影HD~[1080P]完整的电影

【伸冤人3】- 線上看小鴨完整版 高清【The Equalizer 3 2023】在线观看和下载HD~1080p

¡REPELÍSPLUS!▷VER—The Equalizer 3 (2023) Película Completa

[Cuevana-3] Ver The Equalizer 3 (2023) Película Completa

¡VER!!—The Equalizer 3 Película Completa Castellano en Español Latino Gratis

[Cuevana-4] Ver—The Equalizer 3 (2023) Película Completa Online Gratis en Español latino

¡Flix—Ver The Equalizer 3 `El justiciero 3` (2023) Película Completa Online Español y latino

A1Y

A1E

A1P

A1R

↑PelisPlus-VER↓ Fast & Furious X Película completa-español en línea gratis

[REPELIS verFast X (Fast & Furious 10) PELÍCULA COMPLETA Español

[Cuevana 4]!* Ver Fast & Furious 10 (Online) Película Completa 2023 en Español y Latino

✔Fast X (Fast & Furious 10) (2023)🎬 PELICULA COMPLETA➤ ESPAÑOL GRATIS

VOIR ▷ Fast X Film Complet En Francais HD [Regarder]

Regarder Fast X Film Complet En Francais [En HD Regarder]

!VOIR,!! — Fast & Furious X en Streaming-VF en Français, VOSTFR COMPLET

FILM ▷ Fast and Furious 10 en Streaming-VF en Français

ASSISTIR Velocidade Furiosa X 2023 FILME COMPLETO

Assistir Velocidade Furiosa X (2023) Filme Completo Online

!Assistir Filme Velozes e Furiosos 10 Completo HD 2023 Dublado Online

Assistir Velocidade Furiosa X 2023 Online Gratis (Filme HD)

[ดู.หนัง] เงือกน้อยผจญภัย (THE LITTLE MERMAID – 2023) เต็มเรื่อง HD พากย์ไทย ดูหนังใหม่ 1080I

ดูหนัง เงือกน้อยผจญภัย (2023) เต็มเรื่อง HD พากย์ไทย THAI HD Quality

[ดูหนัง.THAI] เงือกน้อยผจญภัย (2023) เต็มเรื่อง HD พากย์ไทย ฟรี on ยูทูบ

รู้ไว้ก่อนดู The Little Mermaid (2023) เงือกน้อยผจญภัย เต็ม เรื่อง

PELISPLUS !MEGA La Sirenita Pelicula Completa (HD) Espanol y Latino

VER_La Sirenita (2023) película completa en español latino

Ver La Sirenita | PELICULA COMPLETA LATINO

VER_La Sirenita (2023) película completa en español latino

REPELIS] Ver Transformers: El despertar de las bestias (2023) Película Online

[¡PELISPLUS!]*—Ver Transformers El despertar de las bestias [2023] Pelicula Completa Online en Español HD

Mega!-ver Transformers: El despertar de las bestias (Pelicula) HD online en espanol latino

PElis NUE (4k) ver Transformers: El despertar de las bestias ~Pelicula completa HD

[ดู-ไทย] ทรานส์ฟอร์เมอร์ส: กำเนิดจักรกลอสูร [TRANSFORMERS: RISE OF THE BEASTS-2023] – ดูหนังออนไลน์ (1080P) พากย์ไทย เต็มเรื่อง

ดู-หนัง!*] Transformers 2023 (ทรานส์ฟอร์เมอร์ส : กำเนิดจักรกลอสูร) ดูหนังออนไลน์ HD พากย์ไทย 1080p

ดูหนัง ทรานส์ฟอร์เมอร์ส: กำเนิดจักรกลอสูร (Transformers: Rise Of The Beasts) ออนไลน์ฟรี HD พากย์ไทย THAI!

[ดู.หนัง] ทรานส์ฟอร์เมอร์ส: กำเนิดจักรกลอสูร (2023) หนังเต็ม HD พากย์ไทย [Transformers: Rise of the Beasts]

Assistir Transformers: Rise of the Beasts [2023] Filme Completo Dublado Online Gratis em Portuguese

[[*Assistir]] Transformers: Rise of the Beasts Filme completo [ 2023 ] Dublado Portugues Grátis Online

Assistir Transformers O Despertar das Feras filme completo Dublado online Legendado

ASSISTIR! Transformers: Rise of the Beasts (2023) Filme Dublado Online Legendado HD Grátis

Transformers : Rise of the Beasts Streaming VF 2023 Regarder Film-Complet HD

!4K-VOIR!!@ — The Beasts en StreamingVF||COMPLET, VOSTFR-Gratuits

[.^WATCH^.] Transformers: Rise of the Beasts (2023) FullMovie Free Online Streaming on 123𝓶𝓸𝓿𝓲𝓮𝓼

[*𝐅𝐈𝐋𝐌𝐒 𝐕𝐎𝐈𝐑*] Transformers: Rise of the Beasts (2023) Français Gratuit et VF Complet

A1G

A1C

A1X

Teh pucuk

A1s